What are the typical loads?
Bearing walls are laterally supported and braced by the rest of the structure, and are mostly subjected to downward dead and live loads. In an interior bearing wall it’s unlikely that these loads are perfectly balanced at each side of the wall, therefore an eccentricity is usually considered. In an exterior wall the gravity loads are applied to one side of the wall only, therefore the load eccentricity is even larger. It’s common practice to apply the vertical loads in a hunch attached to the wall, as shown in the figure below.
An example of this condition occurs in warehouse buildings where a series of joists rest directly on the perimeter walls. Another example occurs in parking garage buildings, where a wall supports a series of double-Tee precast members.
In addition to the gravity uniform or concentrated loads, exterior walls may be subjected to the lateral out-of-plane wind pressure. Note that the worst case scenario occurs when the wind pressure is negative (suction), since the wind moments add up to the moments produced by the gravity loads.